Friday, August 23, 2019
Harley-Davidsons strategy - Essay Example This paper analyses the strategies which helped this company to establish strong reputation in international market. Ã¢â¬Å"Our vision is to fulfil dreams by providing extraordinary motorcycles and customer experiences, and by fuelling the passion for freedom in our customersÃ¢â¬ (Harley-Davidson India). In other words, Harley-Davidson is capable of delivering more than its customersÃ¢â¬â¢ expectations. While most of the companies promise more and deliver less, Harley-Davidson promises less and delivers more. This strategy helps the company to enhance its corporate image immensely. Harley-Davidson is considering its customers as the most important elements in its business. Customers are getting high quality services before and the after the purchase of Harley-Davidson motor bikes. The company knows very well that the existing customers are as important as the new customers. Harley-DavidsonÃ¢â¬â¢s mission statement says that; Ã¢â¬Å"we ride with our customers and apply this deep connection in every market we serve to create superior value for all of our stakeholdersÃ¢â¬ (HD Values). Harley-Davidson Company is providing individualized services to the customers. In other words, customers of Harley-Davidson have the luxury to get their motorbike after the customization process. The company is ready to do a lot of customization on its bike based on the demands of the individual customers. No other motorcycle manufactures are ready to do so. This strategy is helping the company to satisfy the customer needs in a better manner. Harley-Davidson is keen in improving companyÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation with the help of the observance of some of the key values. Some of the core values, followed in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s dealings are; tell the truth, be fair, keep the promises, respect the individual and encourage the intellectual curiosity (HD Values). Unlike many other companies, Harley-Davidson is keen in telling the truth to all its customers
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Challenges Faced by Fisrt Year Students Essay You are expected to submit the pre-writing stage before final submission of the essay The pre-writing stage should be a clear outline of how you are going to write your final essay and an annotated bibliography of not less than five sources.. The purpose of the assignment is to; 1. help you develop the ability to research, reflect on and write an academic essay 2. develop the ability to integrate sources ( i.e. direct quotes, paraphrases and summaries) in your work to demonstrate your perspective on the assignment topic 3. The paper should be written in an academic writing format and should be word processed, font Roman Times or calibri, size 12, line spacing 1.5 and not more than one and a half pages long. 4. The paper should be well researched and thought-provoking. All sources from which your information was obtained should be properly cited using the APA style, and a reference list written at the end of the paper. 5. The reference list should be in a separate page Choose any of the following topics and write an academic essay. 1. Is the law that prohibits the use of cellular phones while driving in Botswana fair? 2. Why is the media important in society? 3. To what extent does the mass media (TV, radio and newspapers) influence an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s personality? 4. Damage of the environment is an inevitable consequence of worldwide improvements in the standard of living. Discuss 5. 6. 7. 8. What are the challenges faced by students at university level that may lead to poor performance. Discuss the different ways through which poverty can be eradicated What is culture? Discuss the different elements of culture. Exams often do little more than measure a personÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to take exams so exams should be abolished in favour of another form of assessment 9. Evaluate the importance of a counseling centre in a university 10. What is the difference between sex and gender? What are gender roles? Deadline for pre-writing stage: 03 March Due date: 08 March
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Improving Math and Science Scores in Middle School Essay Math and Science are two subjects which most students at any level approach with trepidation and intense dislike, however, both subjects are integral to cognitive thinking. Not only will these subjects provide skills that will help students think more clearly, but students will be academically successful throughout their school career, enjoy wider career choices and earn more money after graduation. Therefore, establishing a strong foundation in these subjects is integral to future academic and career success. However, studying these subjects in middle school is even more difficult. Studies have shown that the transition for a student from elementary school to middle school is academically and psychologically difficult. According to Maurice Elias in an article entitled, Ã¢â¬Å"Middle School Transition: ItÃ¢â¬â¢s Harder Than You ThinkÃ¢â¬ , many former elementary school students are not well prepared for the demands of middle school. They need explicit instruction, coaching, and support with regard to organizing time and resources for homework; responding to work that is more challenging and requires more effort; understanding and addressing the varying expectations of teachers in different subject areas; and accomplishing such basic tasks as taking notes and taking tests (Elias, 2001). Unfortunately, this same sentiment resonates today with the New York City Public School system, specifically, middle schools located in low income areas. The New York City Public School System is struggling with mathematics achievement in the grades beyond elementary school. Over 30% of the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s elementary and middle school students score at the lowest level of the state mathematics test and only 34% of all students pass that test. The mathematics Ã¢â¬Å"problemÃ¢â¬ seems connected to the third major trend in the data, the low performance of middle and junior high schools in the city. In both Mathematics and English Language Arts, the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s middle and junior high schools seem to be the weakest link in the system (Domanico, 2002). Recently, the math state scores were released further underscoring the middle school Ã¢â¬Å"math problemÃ¢â¬ that exists. Results showed that while 75. 3% of students at the elementary level passed successfully only 38. 9% of grade eight students passed (Andreatta, 2006, 11). As such, the intent of this study, based on the aforementioned information, is to evaluate and make recommendations with regard to middle school students in a particular school who have been struggling with both subjects. This study will focus on a middle school, IS 166- George Gershwin SchoolÃ¢â¬âlocated in East New York. The decision to choose IS 166 was dependent on a few factors among which included the fact that the district within which it is located is considered a Ã¢â¬Å"virtual educational dead zoneÃ¢â¬ by a Civic Report drafted by the Manhattan Institute for Policy Research (Domanico, 2002). Additionally, after reviewing the New York City Department of EducationÃ¢â¬â¢s websiteÃ¢â¬âwhich provides an overwhelming amount of information on every public school in the city as well as their progress over recent years in the core subjectsÃ¢â¬âit was found that of the schools within the 19th School DistrictÃ¢â¬âprimarily East New York, IS 166 is one of the worst performing schools. The schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s poor academic performance is further exacerbated by the outstanding grades displayed by another school in the 19th School District such as IS 409Ã¢â¬âEast New York Family Academy and outside of the district another school MS 114, located in District 2 (Manhattan), whose grades superseded the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s level as well as the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s level. The graphs below illustrate how IS 166 performed poorly in the last 2 years on the state Math and Science exams comparatively to other schools, specifically IS 409 in the same district as well other schools in other districts. The last two graphs will show the difference with a higher performing school such as IS 409 and therefore will confirm why this study is going to be conducted. IS 166- George Gershwin School Math and Science Grades Source: New York Department of Education (Division of Assessment and AccountabilityÃ¢â¬âSchool Report Cards 2005). Definition of the Levels on which the scores for both subjects are based: Level 4Ã¢â¬âThese students exceed the standards and are moving toward high performance on the Regents examination. Level 3Ã¢â¬âThese students meet the standards and, with continued steady growth, should pass the Regents examination. Level 2Ã¢â¬âThese students need extra help to meet the standards and pass the Regents examination. Level 1Ã¢â¬âThese students have serious academic deficiencies. Source: New York Department of Education (Division of Assessment and AccountabilityÃ¢â¬âSchool Report Cards 2005). The aforementioned graphs showed how poorly IS 166 has performed in the last two years in both Math and Science. In Math, the number of students performing at Levels 3 and 4 has decreased from 22. 2% in 2004 and 17. 5% in 2005. The number of students tested for Level 3 was only 60 and for Level 4 only 3 of 361 total students. The remaining students, as displayed on the right hand side of the graph, are still at a Level 1 which as noted by the above definition means that they are in grave need of assistance. Therefore, for the purposes of the study, the target population will be defined as Ã¢â¬Å"in needÃ¢â¬ students. Although there has been a slight increase in Science, the results are still less than desirable when compared with other schools in the district and the City. As seen in the graph, only 14% of the students passed at Levels 3 and 4 in 2004 and by 2005, only 18% were able to pass at the same levels. Therefore, if IS 166 continues on this trajectory, it will continue to be labeled an underperforming school that graduates below average students incapable of performing the basic tasks in both subjects. The goal of the evaluation study is to thoroughly review the problems that exist and hopefully get the school to achieve grades similar to IS 409-East New York Family Academy sometime in the near future as is reflected in the following graphs. IS 409- East New York Family Academy Math and Science Grades Source: New York Department of Education (Division of Assessment and AccountabilityÃ¢â¬âSchool Report Cards 2005). As noted in the above graphs, IS 409 is performing extremely well at Levels 3 and 4 and has outperformed schools in both math and science in the district (which is truly exceptional given the neighborhood and its history) as well as other City schools. Very few students if any are far below the standard in both subjects. Moreover, as noted before, other schools such as MS 114 and IS 289 located in District 2 have maintained exceptional scores over the two year period. For 2004 and 2005, MS 114 scored 88% and 81% consecutively in Math and 97% and 91% in Science. IS 289 also scored high grades-for both years in Math, the school displayed 83% and 73% when compared to other schools in the district and city and in Science, they scored 87% and 82%. Other schools in other districts from Queens and Staten Island have also demonstrated solid scores. This makes designing a program even more of a priority in light of the above referenced comparisons. The study will not focus on the students at all levels in the middle schools but specifically, the eighth grade students destined for high school who have yet to grasp the necessary skills needed to succeed and have been the center of test score analysis over the years. These eighth grade students will be approximately 14 years old but depending on factors such as repeating a grade or special needs, the age may vary from 14-16 years old. As noted before, they will be identified as Ã¢â¬Å"in needÃ¢â¬ students and the study will attempt to identify the worst performing students by looking not only at grades but possibly contributing factors such as income, special needs, and possible crime involvement. The improvement of Math and Science scores is a gargantuan task which requires a major overall of the school at all levels, however, to begin the following services are needed and they are but not limited to: ?Offering training sessions for the math and science teachers. The difference between not only IS 409 and other schools in District 2 is that the teachers have more experience, education, and are less likely to be absent more than average. The training sessions will be implemented on weekends or after-school whichever is more convenient for the teachers and will be done prior to establishing an after-school program for the students. The training sessions will allow teachers from higher performing schools an opportunity to impart their techniques for achieving higher grades. ?Offering a separate informative session for the Principal, Maria Ortega, so that she is more knowledgeable on what is needed to succeed in both areas. In most cases, the principal of a school has a general idea of what is needed in most subject areas, however, if the principal is more involved, informed, and fully comprehends the nuances of the subject matter, then she will be able to make better choices in hiring and understanding the teaching of the curriculum. This is an idea which originated out of reading the case of MS 114 in District 2 which showcases a principal that has not only taught but has written Math books for children. Also, in IS 289, the principal knows each student individually and is fully acquainted with their needs. ?Offering additional services for children that may range from an after-school program to extending class hours to offering classes on the weekend. One of the schools in District 2 actually has classes that last at least 50 minutes giving students a better opportunity to absorb the material thereby performing better in exams. ?Offering programs that will incorporate the parents as well. Perhaps this will be in conjunction with the after-school program. As noted, most of the students in this district are from low income families and perhaps some of the parents are in low paying jobs or living on welfare. The parents can take advantage of the program by refreshing themselves with the basic concepts of each subject so that they may assist their children and perhaps help themselves. PROGRAM THEORY In order to address the dire academic situation at IS 166-George Gershwin School, and before implementing an after-school program, it is important to address the issue at the higher levels which means analyzing teaching techniques and more importantly, principal participation. At the Center for Civic Innovation Luncheon featuring Chancellor Joel Klein held on Thursday, October 5th at the Harvard Club, Chancellor Klein began his speech with an analogy of the leaky roof and the squeaky floor. He stated that there was a school located in uptown Harlem that had a leaky roof and a squeaky floor. One day a repair man came to repair the floor and the custodian stated that the floor cannot be fixed prior to the roof being fixed to which the repairman replied Ã¢â¬Å"ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s not my concern, I am just here for the floorÃ¢â¬ . The Chancellor began his speech with that story to underscore the problems with the NYC Education system. He believes that everyone wants to fix the underlying problems without addressing the issues at the surface. The ChancellorÃ¢â¬â¢s story may be applied to the case of IS 166 and any other school in need of improvement. Many observers and parents are often led to believe that their children are primarily the problem in achieving higher scores and possibly that their children lack the intellect to truly analyze or process the information given to them. However, it is just as important for the heads of the respective schools to be cognizant of what is needed to improve these scores and the principal is just the person to ensure this. Therefore, before implementing a program, we have recommended that Principal Maria Ortega participate in a briefing session lasting approximately one month in the summerÃ¢â¬âright after the end of the school year and before the hiring season beginsÃ¢â¬âfor at least 4 hours a day, three days a week. According to reports of comprehensive school reforms in Chicago and Louisiana, the schoolsÃ¢â¬â¢ academic success was primarily attributed to the principals in charge and the contributions they made throughout the reforms. In one report, it stated that Ã¢â¬Å"highly effective schools communicated expectations for teachers. The principal was active in working to improve teacher skills; ineffective teachers were let go. Ã¢â¬ Moreover, the principals played an important role in four areas a) selection and replacement of teachers; b) classroom monitoring and feedback; c) support for improvement of individual teachers; and d) allocating and protecting academic time (Good et al, 2005, 2207). Therefore, implementing a program or briefing session solely for Principal Ortega would help her improve in all these areas. Principals, under Chancellor KleinÃ¢â¬â¢s tenure, have been given more empowerment opportunities and have more responsibilities to ensure the success of their schools. IS 166 has been categorized as a Title I School In Need of Improvement (SINI) under the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) and as such, Principal Ortega has to work harder than ever to improve the english, math, and science scoresÃ¢â¬âsubjects that are integral to a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s academic success. The program we have suggested will illustrate to Principal Ortega that math, in particular, cannot be taught in the traditional manner, that is, using rote. In fact, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) advocates the development of an inquiry-based mathematics tradition. Students taught using this tradition are encouraged to explore, develop conjectures, prove, and problem solve (Manswell Butty, 2001, 20). Students are best able to absorb the material in not only math and science but other subjects if the teachers are able to present it in an interesting manner that entails connections to the outside world. Principal Ortega should also be familiarized with the requirements for the exams and then know exactly how the staff should approach student preparation. She should also ensure that with respect to math, she adheres to the recommendations Lyle V. Jones reiterated in his article entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Achievement Trends in Math and ScienceÃ¢â¬ in which it was stated: ? Only teachers who like mathematics should teach mathematics ? The chief objective of school mathematics should be to instill confidence ? Mathematics teaching must be based on both contemporary mathematics and modern pedagogy (Jones, 1988, 333). After completion of this program, and hopefully with a better understanding of what is needed to improve the scores at IS 166, the next step would be to address the teaching staff. As noted, the methodology used is integral to ensuring that the students comprehend, absorb, and analyze the information being disseminated. If they fail to process the information then they will ultimately perform poorly in the state exams and possibly continue to do so throughout high school. We recommend prior to the beginning of the academic year, and the implementation of the after-school program, that teachers, specifically, the math teachers enroll in a summer institute similar to one reported in an article entitled, Ã¢â¬Å"Toward a Constructivist Perspective: The Impact of a Math Teacher InService Program on StudentsÃ¢â¬ . The reason being is that the teaching of math more so than science requires certain techniques that are far from the traditional methods that most teachers employ. The summer institute in the report offered participating teachers intensive two-week summer institutes and weekly classroom follow-up during one academic year. Moreover, they received an opportunity to reexamine their ideas about the teaching and learning of mathematics. During the summer institutes, these teachers experienced mathematics classes in which they were encouraged to construct solutions and ideas and to communicate them to a group. They analyzed student understandings as revealed in interviews and they planned lessons which reflected their evolving ideas about mathematics learning and teaching (Simon and Schifter, 1993, 331). Teachers need to plan their lessons in such a manner as to engage the students so that they may effectively communicate their thoughts or problems with a particular issue. In fact, after completion of the summer institute, and after the teachers began using their newfound techniques, the results were noteworthy and ranged from students stating that Ã¢â¬Å"itÃ¢â¬â¢s fun to work math problemsÃ¢â¬ to Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢d rather do math than any other kind of homeworkÃ¢â¬ to Ã¢â¬Å"I like to explain how I solved a problemÃ¢â¬ (Simon and Schifter, 1993, 333). Therefore, using the above referenced example, the summer institute that we propose for the math teachers will last approximately three weeks in the summer and it would begin approximately mid-August prior to the beginning of the academic year. This program would be mandated by the principal and would include veteran staff members as well new ones brought on board. Another factor that teachers have to take into consideration is the population they cater to during the academic year. IS 166 consists of predominantly black and Hispanic students residing in East New York and its surrounding environs, thereby, making them not only an Ã¢â¬Å"in needÃ¢â¬ group in terms of grades but an Ã¢â¬Å"at riskÃ¢â¬ group in terms of their backgrounds and predisposition to engage in illicit activities. Many believe teaching techniques are generic and if they are employed in one school then they may be applicable in another. However, studies have shown that minority children in low income neighborhoods require a different set of techniques employed. According to Manswell Butty, African-American children have further been identified as favoring four learning styles a) person-centered, b) affective, c) expressive, and movement oriented (Butty, 2001, 23). Therefore, teachers need to use laboratory or group exercises, discussion sessions, or instructional uses of music and the visual and dramatic arts, especially when those pedagogical techniques promote Black studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ greater academic involvement, interest, and performances (Butty, 2001, 23). However, this is not a generalization implying that all minority children respond to this technique but most will probably respond positively. Therefore, teachers must be made aware of the group of children that they are dealing with and ensure that they employ the above referenced techniques to garner success. In fact, there are Learning through Teaching in an After-School Pedagogical Laboratories (L-TAPL) in California and New Jersey, which not only offer a program for elementary students but also serves as a practice-rich professional development for urban teachers. The program aims to improve the achievement of urban students and the competence of their teachers (Foster et al, 2005, 28). According to the Foster article, numerous studies, policies, and programs have addressed the persistent problem of underachievement among poor urban students and its array of possible causes. The NCLB links teacher quality to improved student achievement, especially among low-income urban children of color. Consequently, improving teacher quality has become one of the hallmarks of current reform efforts (Foster et al, 2005, 28). These laboratories groom future urban teachers to deal with students similar to the target population at IS 166. And as such, as an alternative to our summer institute, the teachers are free to enroll in the program offered by this lab in New Jersey. Therefore, taking into account the above referenced studies, improving teacher quality is of utmost importance when taking into consideration the improvement of math and science scores. All of the above has brought us to the most important element of the study establishing an after-school program. Establishing an After-school Program-Resources Funding Under the NCLB Act, Title I schools, such as IS 166 that are listed as Schools In Need of Improvement, have failed to reach student achievement targets that have been set for every school. This means the school has failed to meet state proficiency level for all students in English Language Arts, Mathematics, Science and/or high schools graduation rate. Schools falling in the above referenced category may be eligible for Supplemental Educational Services (SES). SES include free after-school/weekend remedial help or tutoring services. The SES provision offers providers an opportunity to offer low-income children, who may be struggling in school, extra academic help and individual instruction. Through SES, innovative leaders and educators can start a new tutoring program or expand an existing one to serve more students (New York City Department of Education). However, instead of using an SES providerÃ¢â¬âwhich in some cases the DOE will offer contracts of over a million dollars to provide services to various schoolsÃ¢â¬âwe will request additional funding that would have been used to acquire an SES provider to establish the after-school program by ourselves with the assistance of The After-school Corporation (TASC). TASC is renowned for establishing successful after-school programs and have no contract with the DOE and thus, are not labeled SES Providers. In addition to wanting to establish a program using solely school staff, it is important to note, that there have been several complaints about SES providers and most are being investigated either by the Special Commissioner of Investigation for the New York City School District or the Office of Special Investigation and in the best interest of the target population, we have decided to forego those providers. Therefore, the funding used from SES will be used to offer per session rates for the teachers participating in the program as well as pay for the consultant from TASC. The funding will also be used to acquire additional supplies such as the KidzMath program which is highly popular and is used around the country to get students interested in math and to improve scores. Funding will also be used to secure additional bus transportation from the Office of Pupil Transportation as well as food and refreshments for the children. Staffing and Facilities The program will be housed in the school recreation room and so there will be no need to rent a facility to do so. The program will be supervised by the TASC consultant who will preferably be someone from the community who is familiar with the target population and can easily relate to their situation. The principal and assistant principal will take turns observing the classes and ensuring that the teachers and participants are abiding by the rules. The teachers will be eighth grade math and science teachers who deal with the target population on a daily basis and who are familiar with the problems they are experiencing. Additionally, the teachers will be assisted by high school students who are well versed in the subject areas, who have been recruited from neighboring high schools and would like to add an after-school tutoring activity to their resume. Therefore, these students will not be paid but will use the after-school program as a learning experience. Participants The students participating in the program will be chosen based on their past academic performance in grades six and seven and failure to show any signs of improvement. To reiterate, this program is geared specifically for eighth grade students, ages 14-16 years old, and will begin a month into the beginning of the academic year towards the end of September early October after the students and teachers have settled in the new semester. Letters will be sent to the parents at the beginning of the academic year notifying them of their childÃ¢â¬â¢s progress and advising them that the program is mandatory if they are to improve and move on to high school (the letters will be followed up by phone calls). While the school has no recourse if a student fails to attend even though it has been marked mandatory, offering a voluntary program usually encourages those that are really not in need of it to participate and those that do need it usually donÃ¢â¬â¢t. The parents will be informed of the structure of the program and the fact that transportation will be provided so that their children will be taken home safely after the program. In fact, parents who may not be working full time or at all will be encouraged to observe or participate in another session that will help them to understand what their child needs to improve. The session, which will last as long as the tutoring session, will more than likely be conducted by the assistant principal or a math/science staff member and will give the parent an opportunity to be truly acquainted with the activities being conducted. This program may also be helpful to them as well as some of these parents lack the basic educational skills that are necessary to obtain a job. Activities and Schedule Based on successful programs in Arkansas, the after-school program we will establish will mirror these successful programs and therefore, the program will entail classes of one and a half hours each day, Monday through Thursday between the hours of 3pm and 4:30pm. Mondays and Wednesdays will be dedicated to math and Tuesdays and Thursdays will be dedicated to science. The sessions will be divided into 40 minute periods during which the first period will be dedicated to the teacher illustrating the subject material and the second period will be dedicated to the students participating in groups and working together to complete the work presented in the first period. The students will get a ten-minute break during which they will receive refreshments. In the Camden School District in Arkansas, school officials credited the success of the after-school programs to the schools being released from the Ã¢â¬Å"Adequate Yearly ProgressÃ¢â¬ (AYP) status under the NCLB Act (Arkansas Advocates for Children Families, 2006). Throughout the course of the program, teachers will be encouraged not to utilize the same material or techniques used on a daily basis. The teachers will be reminded that the program is geared towards individuals who have a negative attitude toward the subjects which may be as a result of not only failure to comprehend the material but also the teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s emphasis on traditional methods. Therefore, the program will forego any emphasis on memorization, computation, and equation and will focus on modeling and real world problem solving. Engaging in group work, especially in math, has proven to be successful and will be the focus of the program. According to Jones, group work differs from cooperative learning in its lesser emphasis on the teacher as instructor and its greater dependence on students teaching other students. Moreover, cooperative learning procedures as dependent first on instruction by the teacher, then on practice engaged in actively by members of an established student team (often of four team members), has evidence that supports the efficacy of the approach to elevate not only achievement but also self-esteem, interpersonal effectiveness and interracial harmony (Jones, 1988, 328). Therefore, the students will work together in groups over the period of the academic year and will be exposed to hands-on experiences, games, and projects. KidzMath should really be a good stimulant and with the assistance of the teachers, the students should be motivated. Teachers will also be encouraged to maintain a weekly progress report which will ultimately be used to assess the programÃ¢â¬â¢s progress. Another aspect of the program would entail having the Principal establishing stronger ties with the community and getting more community leaders involved by dropping by the after-school program to give advice and encouragement to the students. Students are not only stimulated by various activities that are outside of the norm of the regular classroom but are also stimulated by role models or individuals they deem to be successful from their part of the neighborhood. According to a report done on the Chicago School Reform, the schools that experienced major changes and improvements were led by principals who were strong veteran leaders with good relationships with their local school councils and the community (Hess, Jr. , 1999, 79). Additionally, incentives can also be offered for the students in the program which will encourage their continued participation and potential success and can range from visits to museums or amusement parks if they have showed slight improvements. While these children who performed poorly are from low income families, and a reduction in poverty rates might have a salutary effect on measured school achievement, according to Lyle V. Jones, the influence of poverty on educational achievement may be ameliorated by introducing school-parent programs to improve academic conditions in the home. After reviewing nearly 3,000 investigations of productive factors in learning concludes that such programs have an outstanding record of success in promoting achievement (Jones, 1988, 327). Explanation of Logic Model. Inputs: consist of the fundamental resourcesÃ¢â¬âhuman and capitalÃ¢â¬âthat the program needs in order for it to achieve its goals. These resources consist of funding for per session rates for the teachers, payment for the TASC Consultant, supplies such as KidzMath, transportation, and refreshments. The most important resources needed are the children to whom the program is directed. Activities: Once the fundamental resources are in place, the schedule has been established and the techniques for teaching have been agreed upon, then the after-school program will proceed as planned throughout the academic year. The sessions will be conducted four days a week, Mondays and Wednesdays, for math and Tuesdays and Thursdays for science lasting 1. 5 hrs each period. The sessions will entail a great deal of group work and collaboration along with potential visits from community leaders and role models. Outputs: Upon implementation of the program, it is important to ascertain if the program is reaching its target population, if the services provided are being done in the manner discussed and if the population are benefiting or if they have any concerns those will be noted throughout the assessment. This will be done by conducting site visits, performing observations and conducting surveys. Outcomes: If the program is successful in achieving its goals, then the immediate goals will see the students passing their in-class tests and ultimately the state examsÃ¢â¬âwhich has been the focal issue with the school and the reason for the Title I status under the NCLB Act. The long-term goals include the participants of the program actually going on to high school and possibly even college. From that point onward, if students succeed in college, they may even pursue challenging careers thereby improving their socio-economic status. The reason the logic diagram is done in a cyclical manner is to demonstrate that if the program is successful and the students do improve significantly, then the school may be eligible for the same amount or a higher amount of funding which they can use to increase their resources for the input phase for the upcoming academic year. PROGRAM PROCESS Once the program has been implemented, it is important to ascertain if the services are in fact being delivered as planned and if the participants are learning with the teachers employing the new techniques as discussed. In order to do this, we will conduct an observational study as fashioned from the TASCÃ¢â¬â¢s site visit procedures in addition to teacher and parental surveys to see if they have noted any differences in the children participating in the program. This assessment will be done halfway throughout the semester at approximately the end of January which will also coincide with the first set of state exams (students also take these exams towards the end of the academic year-approximately June). The assessment will begin with a two-person team (my colleague and I) visiting the after-schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s program for two days a week, for a total of two weeksÃ¢â¬âone day for math and the other for science. The visit will include an interview with the principal and assistant principal (who, as noted before, would have taken turns monitoring the program).
William Shakespeare Sonnet Comparisons between Karen McCullah Lutz and Kirsten Smiths 10 Things I Hate About You and William Shakespeares The Taming of the Shrew and references to William Shakespeares Ã¢â¬Å"Sonnet 141Ã¢â¬ Numerous different people have adapted or remade William Shakespeares work The Taming of the Shrew since he wrote it. One of those adaptations is Karen McCullah Lutz and Kirsten Smiths 10 Things I Hate About You and has many direct and indirect references to Shakespeares The TamingÃ¢â¬ ¦. First off, the similarity in the naming of the primary characters, the two sisters in The TamingÃ¢â¬ ¦ are named Katherina and Bianca, in 10 ThingsÃ¢â¬ ¦ Katarina and Bianca. In 10 ThingsÃ¢â¬ ¦ the girls last name is Stratford undoubtedly a reference to Stratford-Upon-Avon where Shakespeare was born. Petruchio of Verona in The TamingÃ¢â¬ ¦ closely resembles Patrick Verona of 10 ThingsÃ¢â¬ ¦ The story lines mirror each other closely. Shakespeares Lucentio wants to marry Bianca but is unable to until her older sister is first wed. In 10 ThingsÃ¢â¬ ¦ Joey is in the same situation wanting to date Bianca but she is unable to until her older sister starts dating. In both works, Petruchio and Patrick are relatively unknowns from out of town. In The TamingÃ¢â¬ ¦ Hortensio has disguised himself as a music teacher, so that he can spend time with Bianca and woo her secretly. Looking at 10 ThingsÃ¢â¬ ¦ Cameron becomes a French tutor to Bianca because he wants to be around Bianca and hopes to woo her as well. There are other points in 10 ThingsÃ¢â¬ ¦ that reference Shakespeare, in Wikipedia it is noted that; At several points the characters also either directly quote Shakespeare or allude to his style of writing in their own speech, typically for comedic value. For example, upon seeing Bianca for the first time, Cameron declares, Ã¢â¬Å"I burn, I pine, I perish!Ã¢â¬ (10 things) Which is a direct quote from The TamingÃ¢â¬ ¦ that Lucento says in Act I scene i. Tranio, I burn, I pine, I perish, Tranio, If I achieve not this young modest girl. Counsel me, Tranio, for I know thou canst: Assist me, Tranio, for I know thou wilt (The Taming). What Lucento is saying is that he wants to wed Bianca and he is asking Tranio, his servant, how he can achieve this. Continuing from Wikipedia, Ã¢â¬Å"Also, when Michael pulls out on his motorbike in front of [Katarina] and she apprehends him, he calls her the shrew.Ã¢â¬ (10 things) I found this to be very interesting as many modern students have a very hard time relating to Shakespeare. This was a very bold move by Lutz and Smith and in 10 ThingsÃ¢â¬ ¦ they really pulled it off well in that I did not even notice it the first few times that I watched it. Once I did notice this, I felt that the bringing the classics to the modern screen enhanced this movie even more. Katharina has the homework assignment to write her own version of Shakespeares Ã¢â¬Å"Sonnet 141Ã¢â¬ . Her poem Ã¢â¬Å"10 things I hate about youÃ¢â¬ obviously becomes the title of the movie. The first two lines of Ã¢â¬Å"Sonnet 141Ã¢â¬ read, Ã¢â¬Å"In faith, I do not love thee with mine eyes, For they in thee a thousand errors note;Ã¢â¬ (Sonnet) What it seems that Shakespeare is saying I love you but not for your physical beauty in Katharinas version she states, Ã¢â¬Å"I hate the way you talk to me, and the way you cut your hairÃ¢â¬ (10 things). Not an exact match but her poem reflects what Shakespeare was conveying in Ã¢â¬Å"Sonnet 141Ã¢â¬ which I see as, you are not perfect but I love you in so many ways nonetheless. This can also be seen in next two lines of Ã¢â¬Å"Sonnet 141Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"But tis my heart that loves what they despise,Who, in despite of view, is pleasd to dote.Ã¢â¬ (Sonnet) Which say that no matter what some see I will dote on you because my heart loves what others may not like. The rest of Ã¢â¬Å"Sonnet 141Ã¢â¬ is much the same just stated much more eloquently by Shakespeare. The last line of Katharinas version is,Ã¢â¬Å"But mostly I hate the way I dont hate you. Not even close, not even a little bit, not even at allÃ¢â¬ (10 Things) This is in essence exactly what Shakespeare says in Ã¢â¬Å"Sonnet 141Ã¢â¬ just taking the reverse, he loves her yet he cannot say why and Kat says I should hate you but I do not. There are other correlations between 10 Things I Hate About You and The Taming of the Shrew beyond what I have shown here. I believe that this was an excellent modernizing of a truly great work of Shakespeares. 10 ThingsÃ¢â¬ ¦ uses a classic story bringing it to a new generation even if they do not realize it. Most will agree that the movie was purely for entertainment but who knows they may have learned something along the way. Work Cited 10 Things I Hate About You. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 4 Mar 2007, 18:30 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 4 Mar 2007. d=112609421>. Sonnet 141. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 19 Jan 2007, 01:35 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 5 Mar 2007. . The Taming of the Shrew. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 3 Mar 2007, 19:02 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 4 Mar 2007. 12378181>. I have included both Kats poem from 10 ThingsÃ¢â¬ ¦ and Ã¢â¬Å"Sonnet 141Ã¢â¬ Kats 10 Things I Hate About You I hate the way you talk to me, and the way you cut your hair. I hate the way you drive my car. I hate it when you stare. I hate your big dumb combat boots, and the way you read my mind. I hate you so much it makes me sick; it even makes me rhyme. I hate the way youre always right. I hate it when you lie. I hate it when you make me laugh, even worse when you make me cry. I hate it when youre not around, and the fact that you didnt call. But mostly I hate the way I dont hate you. Not even close, not even a little bit, not even at all. Sonnet 141 by William Shakespeare In faith, I do not love thee with mine eyes, For they in thee a thousand errors note; But tis my heart that loves what they despise, Who, in despite of view, is pleasd to dote. Nor are mine ears with thy tongues tune delighted; Nor tender feeling, to base touches prone. Nor taste nor smell desire to be invited To any sensual feast with thee alone: But my five wits nor my five senses can Dissuade one foolish heart from serving thee, Who leaves unswayd the likeness of a man, Thy proud hearts slave and vassal wretch to be: Only my plague thus far I count my gain, That she that makes me sin awards me pain
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Analysis of Fable by Nina Cassian Whereas the extent of my poetic appreciation lies in a decided distaste for Dante and a zest for limericks concerning Nantucket - it behooves me to discuss a poem that my limited capacities can grasp. Fable by Nina Cassian is just such a poem. I view this piece as Ms. Cassian's perspective on life (a "sentence" or an obligation), death, and sadly, the fact that most people do not appreciate the beautific nature of existence. I understand the first stanza as a depiction of man's earthly plane as a sort of testing ground for "angels" - a place where beings are concerned with the development of spirit, "to master imbalance." The second and third stanzas I interpret as the transformation of the ethereal spirit to a corporeal state. The "angel plummeted" and thus left spiritual beauty in a quest for purity. The angel,s descent is clearly painful: "...feathers carbonized, his sole wing impotent, dangling." Though the cost of corporeal existence is dear, I believe Ms. Cassian sees this as an obligation which must be met, a "sentence." The final sentence is the saddest. The nature of this newly formed being is mundanely categorized. The "people" fail to see its purpose and its intrinsic beauty; by extension, they have lost their own missions, their own true value. They have forgotten God. The second poem was written by an astonishingly brillant N.Y.U. student hoping to receive an "A" in an introductory literature course taught by a fascinating (and underpaid) professsor. 12/2/97 is the date that this author spent approximately six minutes dead. He had minored in theology and had developed a healthy scepticism concerning all religions. The author had laughed at so called "near-death experiences -" believing them either fantasy or resultant of a chemical secretion of the frontal lobe in times of catastrophic distress. This erstwhile pillager of the business world, this glorified "strett hustler" discovered upon his demise that as the "people" of Fable he had lost his way, his appreciation, his God.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Biography of Andrew Warhol Born Andrew Warhol on August 6, 1928 (some sources say 1927), in Forest City, Pennsylvania, the son of a construction worker and miner from Czechoslovakia. He attended the Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pittsburgh from 1945-1949, receiving a bachelor of fine arts degree in pictorial design. Warhol liked to shroud himself in mystery. "I never give my background, and anyway, I make it all up differently every time I'm asked," he said. His exact birth date and place only add to this mystery. Warhol provided no information on the matter, so any definitive statement is subject to question. In 1949 Warhol arrived in New York City, where he made a meager living in advertising display work. He took some of his drawings to Glamour magazine and received a commission to make drawings of shoes. These were published and admired; he then worked for a shoe chain. In 1957 a shoe advertisement brought him the Art Directors' Club Medal. His work appeared in Vogue and Harper's Bazaar magazines, and in 1959 he exhibited his gold shoe drawings in a New York City gallery. In 1960 Warhol began painting pictures with no commercial market in mind. He did a series on comic strips such as Dick Tracy, Popeye, Superman and the Little King. His paintings of Coca Cola bottles and Campbell soup cans, arranged in seemingly endless rows, were ridiculed when they were first shown. He created paintings of money and ... ...ed subjects with great popular imagery and treated the symbol and image as much as he does the real object itself. As a social commentator (a role he denied), Warhol had the uncanny ability to mirror the trends and fads of his time. Recognizing the elements of an urban mass society heavily influenced by symbols, images, and the mass media, he made those symbols and images the subjects of his art. For Warhol and other Pop artists, these images have taken on a reality of their own. They were not only shaped by but also reshaped popular culture. Warhol left social and cultural historians visual documents of the significant elements from America's consumerist society of the postwar era--an important legacy. Warhol died of heart failure hours after under going gall bladder surgery on February 22, 1987, in New York City.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Critical Views of The Awakening Ã Ã Ã Ã The Awakening, written by Kate Chopin, is full of ideas and understanding about human nature. In Chopin's time, writing a story with such great attention to sensual details in both men and women caused skepticism among readers and critics. However, many critics have different views with deeper thought given to The Awakening. Symbolism, the interpretation of Edna's suicide, and awakenings play important roles in the analysis of all critics. Ã Symbolism in The Awakening is interpreted in many ways. It is important to understand the meaning of each explanation of symbolism given by every critic to fully appreciate the novel. Art, for example, becomes a symbol of both freedom and failure(Wyatt). It is through the process of trying to become an artist that Edna reaches the highest point of her awakening(Wyatt). Clothes are also significant in discovering symbolism. When Edna is first introduced she is fully dressed. Gradually, she disrobes until finally she goes into the water to die, completely naked. Her undressing symbolizes the shedding of societal rules in her life, her growing awakening, and it stresses her physical and external self(Wyatt). Two modern critics, Neal Wyatt and Harold Bloom, agree that Edna is symbolized for her "quest for self-discovery or self-hood." Edna feels caged, which makes her quest very difficult. The use of birds in the story helps the reader understand Edna's feeling of entrapment and the inab ility to communicate(Wyatt). Much like the shedding of clothes, birds symbolize freedom and escape from being caged. The ability to spread your wings and fly is a symbolic theme that occurs often in the novel(Wyatt). Ã Many readers do not like the ending... ...r that many people of her time found unladylike or even perverted. However, as time has passed and readers as well as critics find it easier to talk about sensual emotions, Chopin is now known as one of the most respected and brilliant writers that ever lived. Women had the feelings she wrote about and life was as discriminating as she described it, but only Kate Chopin had the courage to tell about it. Critics have given deep thought to The Awakening and with each analysis one reads, comes a new and unique awakening. Ã Works Cited Gilbert, Sandra J.Ã "The Novel of the Awakening."Ã Bloom, Harold, ed. Modern Critical Views: The Awakening, Kate Chopin Rosowski, Sandra M. "The Second Coming of Aphrodite."Ã Bloom, Harold, ed. Modern Critical Views:Ã Kate Chopin; Chelsea House :Ã New York,Ã 1987. Wyatt, Neal. "Suicide". http.//www.vcu.edu/engweb/eng384